Dental X-rays increase risk of thyroid cancer, says expert

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London: Multiple exposures to dental x-rays may be associated with increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, according to new research.

A collaborative study by scientists from Brighton, Cambridge, and Kuwait showed that the risk of thyroid cancer increased with increasing number of dental x-rays taken.

About 1900 new cases of thyroid cancer are diagnosed each year in Great Britain and the incidence rates more than doubled from 1.4 to 2.9 per 100,000 persons between 1975 and 2006. Increasing use of sensitive diagnostic techniques is not considered to account for all this increase and the researchers believe other causes need investigation.

The research team was led by Dr Anjum Memon (pictured), senior lecturer and consultant in public health medicine at Brighton and Sussex Medical School, a partnership between Brighton and Sussex universities, and NHS Brighton and Hove.

The thyroid gland is situated in the neck, and will be exposed to radiation from many dental x-rays. It is known to be highly sensitive to ionising radiation, particularly in children, and dental radiography, a source of low-dose diagnostic radiation, is often overlooked as a potential hazard to the gland.

The researchers studied 313 thyroid cancer patients in Kuwait where dental treatment is free and where the incidence of thyroid cancer is relatively high compared to Britain. They said the results of their study, although the largest case-control study on the subject, should be treated with caution because the data were necessarily based on self-reporting by the participants. Comprehensive historical dental x-ray records were not available from the clinics.

They said the results provide good evidence to warrant more research in settings where historical dental x-ray records are available and where doses of radiation can be estimated.

Dr Memon said the findings were consistent with previous reports of increased risk of thyroid cancer in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers which suggest that multiple low-dose exposures in adults may also be important. He said dental x-rays have also been associated with an increased risk of brain and salivary gland tumours.

He said: “The public health and clinical implications of these findings are particularly relevant in the light of increases in the incidence of thyroid cancer in many countries over the past 30 years.

“It is important that our study is repeated with information from dental records including frequency of x-rays, age and dose at exposure. If the results are confirmed then the use of x-rays as a necessary part of evaluation for new patients, and routine periodic dental radiography (at 6–12 months interval), particularly for children and adolescents, will need to be reconsidered, as will a greater use of lead collar protection.”

He added: “Our study highlights the concern that like chest (or other upper-body) x-rays, dental x-rays should be prescribed when the patient has a specific clinical need, and not as part of routine check-up or when registering with a dentist.”

He concluded: “The notion that low-dose radiation exposure through dental radiography is absolutely safe needs to be investigated further, as although the individual risk, particularly with modern equipment is likely to be very low, the proportion of the population exposed is high.”

The research team, whose findings have been published in Acta Oncologica, 2010; 49:447-453, called for further studies using dental X-ray records.

The research was funded by the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) and was administered by the Kuwait University Research Grant Administration.
Lead researcher was Anjum Memon with Sara Godward, Dillwyn Williams, Iqbal Siddique and Khalid Al-Saleh.
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About Brighton and Sussex Medical School

Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS) is partnership between the University of Brighton, University of Sussex and the local NHS health community. At BSMS, we identify research areas in medicine where we believe we can make a rapid and real difference. Our focus is on the continuous improvement of population health and medical treatment to deliver more personalised healthcare for patients, by applying basic science to answer fundamental clinical questions. BSMS brings together the combined expertise of the universities of Brighton and Sussex and the local NHS health economy, to deliver research which is directly translated into health gains for the population.
Thyroid cancer statistics from Cancer Research UK.

www.bsms.ac.uk

Smoking – causes bad breath and worse – mouth cancer!

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Smoking causes fatal diseases as well as creating a carcinogenic soup in your mouth that could lead to oral cancer….find out more here…

Q How can smoking affect my oral health?

A Most people are now aware that smoking is bad for our health. It can cause many different medical problems and, in some cases, fatal diseases. However, many people donÂ’t realise the damage that smoking does to their mouth, gums and teeth.

Smoking can lead to tooth staining, gum disease, tooth loss and in more severe cases mouth cancer.

Q Why are my teeth stained?

A One of the effects of smoking is staining on the teeth due to the nicotine and tar content. It can make the teeth yellow in a very short time, and heavy smokers often complain that their teeth are almost brown after years of smoking.

Q How will smoking affect my gums and teeth?

A Smoking can also lead to gum disease. Patients who smoke are more likely to produce bacterial plaque, which leads to gum disease. The gums are affected because smoking causes a lack of oxygen in the bloodstream, so the infected gums fail to heal. Smoking causes people to have more dental plaque and for gum disease to progress more rapidly than in non-smokers. Gum disease still remains the most common cause of tooth loss in adults.

Q How is smoking linked with cancer?

A Most people know that smoking can cause lung and throat cancer, but many people are still unaware that it is one of the main causes of mouth cancer too. Every year thousands of people die from mouth cancer brought on by smoking. (See our leaflet ‘Tell Me About Mouth Cancer’)

Q Are there special dental products I can use?

A There are special toothpastes for people who smoke. They are sometimes a little more abrasive than ordinary pastes and should be used with care. Your dentist may recommend that you use these toothpastes alternately with your usual toothpaste. As there are several toothpastes on the market which claim to whiten teeth it is important to look for those accredited by the British Dental Health Foundation. Our logo means that the claims on the packaging are scientifically proven to be correct and the product will be effective at removing staining caused by smoking.

Q What about mouthwashes?

A People who smoke may find they are more likely to have bad breath than non-smokers. Fresh breath products such as mouthwashes may help to disguise the problem in the short term, but will only mask it.

Q How often should I visit my dentist?

A It is important that you visit your dentist regularly both for a normal check up and a full mouth examination so that any other conditions can be spotted early.

You should visit your dentist at least once a year. However, this may be more often if your dentist feels it necessary. People who smoke are more likely to have stained teeth, and therefore may need appointments more often with the dental hygienist.

Q What can my dentist do for me?

A Your dentist will carry out a regular examination to make sure that your teeth and gums and whole mouth are healthy.

Your dentist will also examine your cheeks, tongue and throat for any signs of other conditions that may need more investigation.

They may also be able to put you in touch with organisations and self- help groups who will have the latest information to help you stop smoking.

Q Will I need any extra treatment?

A Your dentist may also refer you to a dental hygienist, for further treatment, thorough cleaning and to keep a closer check on your oral hygiene.

Your dental hygienist will be able to advise you on how often you should visit them, although this should usually be every three to six months.

Dental Crowns – all you ever wanted to know

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London: Crowns are an excellent way to get beautiful teeth. The animations right and below graphically illustrate the procedure of placing dental crowns:

CROWNS

Q What is a crown?

A Crowns are an ideal way to rebuild teeth which have been broken, or have been weakened by decay or a very large filling. The crown fits right over the remaining part of the tooth, making it strong and giving it the shape and contour of a natural tooth. Crowns are sometimes also known as ‘caps’. An ‘Anterior Crown’ is a crown fitted to the front eight teeth.

Q Why would I need a crown?

A There are a number of reasons. For instance:
 the tooth may have been weakened by having a very large filling
 you may have discoloured fillings and would like to improve the appearance of the tooth
 you may have had a root filling which will need a crown to protect it
 you may have had an accident and damaged the tooth
 it may help hold a bridge or denture firmly in place.

Q What are crowns made of?

A Crowns are made of a variety of materials and new materials are being introduced all the time. Here are some of the options available at present:

 Porcelain bonded to precious metal: this is what most crowns are made from. A precious metal base is made and layers of porcelain are then applied over it.
 Porcelain: these crowns are not as strong as bonded crowns but they can look very natural and are most often used for front teeth.
 Porcelain and composite: porcelain and composite resin materials can sometimes look the most natural. However, these crowns are not as strong as bonded metal crowns.
 Glass: these crowns look very natural and are used on both front and back teeth.
 Precious metal (gold and palladium): these crowns are very strong and hard-wearing, but are not usually used at the front of the mouth, where they are highly visible.

Q How is a tooth prepared for a crown?

A The dentist will prepare the tooth to the ideal shape for the crown. This will mean removing most of the outer surface, and leaving a strong inner ‘core’. The amount of the tooth removed will be the same as the thickness of the crown to be fitted. Once the tooth is shaped, the dentist will take an impression of the prepared tooth, one of the opposite jaw and possibly another to mark the way you bite together. The impressions will be given to the technician, along with any other information they need to make the crown.

Q Who makes the crown?

A The impressions and information about the shade of your teeth will be given to a dental technician who will be skilled in making crowns. They will make models of your mouth and make the crown on these to be sure that the crown fits perfectly.

Q Will the crown be noticeable?

A No. The crown will be made to match your other teeth exactly. The shade of the neighbouring teeth will be recorded, to make sure that the colour looks

natural and matches the surrounding teeth. A temporary crown, usually made in plastic, will be fitted at the end of the
first appointment to last until the permanent one is ready. These temporary crowns may be more noticeable, but they are only in place for about two weeks.

Q How long does the treatment take?

A You will need to have at least two visits: the first for the preparation, impression, shade taking and fitting the temporary crown, and the second to fit the permanent crown.

Q Does it hurt to have a tooth prepared for a crown?

A No. A local anaesthetic is used and the preparation should feel no different from a filling. If the tooth does not have a nerve, and a post crown is being prepared, then local anaesthetic may not be needed.

Q Are post crowns different?

A Post crowns may be used when the tooth has been root filled. The weakened crown of the tooth is drilled off at the level of the gum. The dentist makes a double-ended ‘post’ to fit into the root canal. This can be either prefabricated stainless steel or custom made of gold. One end of the post is cemented into the root canal, and the other end holds the crown firmly in place.

Q Are there any alternatives to post crowns for root-filled teeth?

A If a root-filled tooth is not completely broken down, it may be possible to build it up again using filling material. This

‘core’ is then prepared in the same way as a natural tooth and the impressions are taken.

Q How long will a crown last?

A The life of a crown will depend on how well it is looked after. The crown itself cannot decay, but decay can start where the edge of the crown joins the tooth. It is very important to keep this area as clean as your other teeth, or decay could endanger the crown. Properly cared for crowns will last for many years – your dentist will be able to tell you how long.

Q How are crowns fixed to teeth?

A Once the fit and appearance of the crown has been checked – and approved by you – it will be cemented in place with special dental cement. The cement also forms a seal to help hold it firmly in place.

Q Will the crown feel different?

A Because the shape of the crown will be slightly different from the shape of your tooth before it was crowned, you may be aware of it to begin with. Within a few days it should feel fine, and you will not notice it. The crown may need some adjustment if it feels higher than the surrounding teeth. If it is at all uncomfortable ask your dentist to check and adjust it.

Q Is there an alternative to a crown?

A A veneer may be an alternative to having an anterior crown. Your dentist will advise you of any suitable alternatives.

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Snoring treatment – animation and Qs & As

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ANTI-SNORING

Q What is snoring?

A The noise of snoring is caused by the vibration of the soft tissues in the upper airway. During sleep the muscles of the upper airway relax resulting in the formation of bottlenecks or even complete obstruction of the airways. The body reacts by increasing the velocity of the air which in turn causes vibration of the soft tissues which generates the noise of snoring.

Q Who is likely to snore?

A Research has shown that approximately 40% of the adult population snore. As a person gets older the chances of snoring increases. (i.e. in men aged 60 this increases to 60%.) The chances of snoring are also increased if a person is overweight or drinks alcohol.

Q What is Obstructive Sleep Apnoea?

A This is a medical condition. People suffering from it are heard to gasp for breath while they are asleep. Additional symptoms are daytime drowsiness or the feeling of not having a full nights sleep. Where Sleep Apnoea is suspected an anti-snoring device may still be prescribed but it is essential that you consult your medical practitioner and if he confirms that Sleep Apnoea is suspected, that you are referred to the sleep clinic of a hospital for further investigation.

Not everyone that snores suffers from Sleep Apnoea – but nearly everyone who suffers from Sleep Apnoea will snore.

Q What help is available?

A Your dentist could make you an oral appliance which is worn at night to prevent snoring.

This will consists of two thin plastic formings which fit over the upper and lower teeth. They are joined together by two connectors that gently hold the lower jaw in a forward position. Any opening of the mouth pulls the lower jaw further forward.

Q Can anyone use this appliance?

A The appliance can not be made if you have no natural teeth or only a few natural teeth. Your dentist will be able to advise you as to your own situation.

Q What happens next?

A Your dentist will ask you to complete a questionnaire (if possible with your partner) and then take moulds of your upper and lower tooth arches. Your appliance will be custom made to the moulds of your mouth and your dentist will fit it. (Allow about two weeks for your appliance to be manufactured.) You will be asked to wear it initially each night for a week to ensure that the noise of snoring has been eliminated. If after wearing it for a week the noise of snoring has not been completely eliminated your appliance should be returned to your dentist for adjustment.

Unfortunately it is not possible to guarantee that the appliance will work on everyone. Statistics demonstrate that in 62% of people that snore it will totally eliminate the noise of snoring. In the remaining cases the noise of snoring may be reduced or it will not work at all.

Q Does the appliance require maintenance?

A The appliance does require regular maintenance but the intervals between maintenance periods are difficult to predict because they depend on the individuals case. If you grind your teeth at night the life of your appliance will be reduced.

Q Does the appliance come with a warranty?

A Some appliances have an initial 6 months repair and servicing warranty from the date of manufacture of the appliance. You will need to discuss this with your dentist.

Smoking and Oral Health – animation and Qs & As

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SMOKING AND ORAL HEALTH

Q How can smoking affect my oral health?

A Most people are now aware that smoking is bad for our health. It can cause many different medical problems and, in some cases, fatal diseases. However, many people donÂ’t realise the damage that smoking does to their mouth, gums and teeth.

Smoking can lead to tooth staining, gum disease, tooth loss and in more severe cases mouth cancer.

Q Why are my teeth stained?

A One of the effects of smoking is staining on the teeth due to the nicotine and tar content. It can make the teeth yellow in a very short time, and heavy smokers often complain that their teeth are almost brown after years of smoking.

Q How will smoking affect my gums and teeth?

A Smoking can also lead to gum disease. Patients who smoke are more likely to produce bacterial plaque, which leads to gum disease. The gums are affected because smoking causes a lack of oxygen in the bloodstream, so the infected gums fail to heal. Smoking causes people to have more dental plaque and for gum disease to progress more rapidly than in non-smokers. Gum disease still remains the most common cause of tooth loss in adults.

Q How is smoking linked with cancer?

A Most people know that smoking can cause lung and throat cancer, but many people are still unaware that it is one of the main causes of mouth cancer too. Every year thousands of people die from mouth cancer brought on by smoking. (See our leaflet ‘Tell Me About Mouth Cancer’)

Q Are there special dental products I can use?

A There are special toothpastes for people who smoke. They are sometimes a little more abrasive than ordinary pastes and should be used with care. Your dentist may recommend that you use these toothpastes alternately with your usual toothpaste. As there are several toothpastes on the market which claim to whiten teeth it is important to look for those accredited by the British Dental Health Foundation. Our logo means that the claims on the packaging are scientifically proven to be correct and the product will be effective at removing staining caused by smoking.

Q What about mouthwashes?

A People who smoke may find they are more likely to have bad breath than non-smokers. Fresh breath products such as mouthwashes may help to disguise the problem in the short term, but will only mask it.

Q How often should I visit my dentist?

A It is important that you visit your dentist regularly both for a normal check up and a full mouth examination so that any other conditions can be spotted early.

You should visit your dentist at least once a year. However, this may be more often if your dentist feels it necessary. People who smoke are more likely to have stained teeth, and therefore may need appointments more often with the dental hygienist.

Q What can my dentist do for me?

A Your dentist will carry out a regular examination to make sure that your teeth and gums and whole mouth are healthy.

Your dentist will also examine your cheeks, tongue and throat for any signs of other conditions that may need more investigation.

They may also be able to put you in touch with organisations and self- help groups who will have the latest information to help you stop smoking.

Q Will I need any extra treatment?

A Your dentist may also refer you to a dental hygienist, for further treatment, thorough cleaning and to keep a closer check on your oral hygiene.

Your dental hygienist will be able to advise you on how often you should visit them, although this should usually be every three to six months.

Tooth Jewellery – animation and Qs & As

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TOOTH JEWELLERY

Q What is Tooth Jewellery?

A Tooth Jewellery is the latest fashion craze to hit the UK. Tooth jewellery classic designs are an elegant compliment to standard jewellery. When placed on the tooth, the jewellery creates a distinctive expression of oneÂ’s individuality.

There are 2 main types of tooth jewellery available: –

• Twinkles: – This is a collection of 24-carat gold and white gold jewellery. The jewellery is available in over 50 different designs with some including diamonds, sapphires and rubies.

• Dental Gems: – Are a range of glass crystals are available in nine different colours – diamond, rainbow, ruby, sapphire, emerald, emerald green, aquamarine, pink, sapphire light.

Q Is The Jewellery For Males Or Females?

A Both – there are many different designs which appeal to everyone. Children under the age of 16 should have parental consent.

Q How Do You Apply them?

A The dentist will use a dental adhesive to apply the Jewellery to your tooth.

Q Does The Application Procedure Hurt?

A NO! – The procedure is similar to placing an orthodontic bracket on a tooth. There is no drilling involved and the procedure is completely painless

Q How Long Does The Application Procedure Take?

A The fitting procedure should take no more than 10 to 15 minutes

Q How Long Will The Jewellery Stay On My Tooth?

A The tooth Jewellery can last on your tooth indefinitely or for as long as you want it.

Q Will The Tooth Jewellery Harm My Tooth?

A When properly placed by a dentist, the tooth Jewellery will not damage or harm your tooth in any way. Tooth jewellery should only be applied to natural teeth.

Q How Do I Remove The Tooth Jewellery When I No Longer Want it?

A If you would like to remove your tooth Jewellery the it can be taken off by a dentist at any time

Q How Much Does It Cost?

A Prices vary from design to design, ask your dentist for more information

How Invisalign can give you a radiant smile

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London: Nearly half of us are embarrassed by our teeth – now you can flash those perfect pearlies… with confidence!

ItÂ’s the simplest of secrets to looking great, but so many of us still donÂ’t make the most of natureÂ’s greatest beauty tool, a great smile. Your smile is a genuine reflection of your deepest feelings; it costs nothing and enriches those you encounter, a smile conveys your self-esteem and exudes confidence to the world around you.

Yet, according to a new survey by Align Technology, makers of the Invisalign system, which uses a series of removable clear aligners to gradually move the teeth, nearly half of us Brits (46%) are well and truly embarrassed about the state of our teeth. Having a smile to be proud of is really important – your smile is in fact one of the first things people notice when they meet you. Research shows that not only is a great smile the first thing a third of women notice in a potential love interest, but six in ten of us also agree that a winning smile makes you appear more confident – and thus far more attractive.

While many of us still long for a perfectly straight smile, weÂ’re haunted with visions of the metal train tracks and hours in the dentistÂ’s chair. So what do we need to do to achieve perfectly straight pearly whites? Help is at hand from Dental practitioner Dr Paul Humber and relationship psychologist Dr. Pam Spurr who offer some simple tips to making your teeth something to be proud of:

Click here to view video:Perfect Smile Video

Top Tips for a perfect smile, for every step of the way

1. Watch what you eat and drink – We all know red wine and coffee can stain your teeth, but sticking to lighter drinks can make a huge difference.

2. Keep a toothbrush in your bag – You can get rid of the post lunch build up at work, so the hot guy in the office always sees you at your best

3. Use your mirror – Find the teeth that are the most stained and concentrate on those when brushing to get an even better smile!

4. Floss – Get in the gaps to remove build up; bottle brushes are great too and available in most shops

5. Keep up with latest technology – From teeth straightening and whitening, it has come along way, which means it’s never too late to sort out your teeth.

For more information visit www.invisalign.com

Scientists develop early-warning plaque detector

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Liverpool: Scientists at the University of Liverpool have developed a new dental product to identify plaque build-up in the mouth before it is visible to the human eye.

The toothbrush-sized product has a blue light at its tip, which, when shone around the mouth and viewed through yellow glasses with a red filter, allows plaque to be seen easily as a red glow. The device, produced in collaboration with dental and healthcare developers, Inspektor Research Systems BV, has been designed for everyday use in the home.

Dentists currently use disclosing agents in tablet form to uncover tooth decay and plaque but these often stain the mouth and taste unpleasant. The new product, known as Inspektor TC, will be particularly useful for those who are vulnerable to dental diseases such as children and the elderly.

Children in the UK have had an average of 2.5 teeth filled or removed by the age of 15 because of tooth decay. In young people alone ÂŁ45 million is currently being spent every year on the problem.

Professor Sue Higham, from the University’s School of Dental Sciences, said: “It is extremely difficult to get rid of all plaque in the mouth. Left undisturbed it becomes what we call ‘mature’ plaque and gets thicker. This is what leads to gingivitis, or bleeding gums, and decay.

“Early stage plaque is invisible, and so this device will show people the parts of the mouth that they are neglecting when they brush their teeth, enabling them to remove plaque before it becomes a problem.

“Inspektor TC is designed so that people can easily incorporate it into their daily dental hygiene routine at home. We now hope to work with industry partners to develop this prototype so that people can use it in the home to identify plaque before any serious dental work is needed.”

The team has now received a Medical Futures Innovation Award for the product – a commendation which acknowledges significant innovation in science.

More information

1. Inspektor Research Systems BV is an industrial collaborator based in Norway which focuses on research and analysis to develop innovative dental and healthcare products.

2. Medical Futures Innovation Awards recognise groundbreaking ideas and products within the healthcare and business world that have the potential to transform peopleÂ’s lives. Past winners of the award have secured over ÂŁ80 million of funding from industry specialists for the manufacture of their product.

3. The University of Liverpool is a member of the Russell Group of leading research-intensive institutions in the UK. It attracts collaborative and contract research commissions from a wide range of national and international organisations valued at more than ÂŁ93 million annually.

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Early detection reduces oral cancer deaths – new study

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London: EXPERT studies have warned that late detection of mouth cancer is causing unnecessary deaths, backing the UK’s leading oral health charity’s Mouth Cancer Action Week 2008 campaign message.

A Journal of Prosthodontics study has called on greater emphasis on oral cancer screening. Early detection of oral cancer leads to a 95 per cent survival rate – yet currently the majority of cases are picked up late – with less than half surviving beyond five years.

The British Dental Health Foundation led the November’s Mouth Cancer Action Week with the call ‘If in doubt, get checked out.’

Foundation chief executive Dr Nigel Carter BDS LDS (RCS) said: “The majority of oral cancers are diagnosed at a late stage – which means so many deaths are unnecessary. Mouth cancer is often painless, this hidden killer causes a death every five hours in the UK.

“The public and the profession must all work together to make sure were stay aware of the dangers. Dentists and hygienists must communicate with their patients on this issue; while it is vital people visit their dentist regularly.”

Researchers at the Journal of Prosthodontics called for greater commitment from dentists to looking for mouth cancer: “If dentists are more vigilant in performing oral cancer screening examinations on all of their patients, the quality of life and survivability from these cancers will be greatly improved, whereby morbidity and mortality will be greatly reduced.”

The study urged use of screening aids to boost detection, and showed that the need for regular screenings had risen, as attempts to educate on prevention had stalled.

Nearly 5,000 people are diagnosed with oral cancer each year in the UK, with tobacco and alcohol related to around three quarters of all cases.

An ageing population puts more at risk in the most common over 40s age group, while increasing numbers of young are affected – a quarter of cases displaying no risk factors.

The human papilloma virus, transmitted through oral sex, has also been linked to rising numbers of mouth cancer incidences.

The Foundation’s 2008 mouth cancer survey showed one in five UK patients remain unaware of mouth cancer. Seventy per cent of patients said they had not discussed the disease with their dentist, and were not sure they had ever received oral screening.

Mouth Cancer Action Week 2008 was launched at the Houses of Parliament in November 2008, with a speech by leading expert Professor Saman Warnakulasuriya calling for government support for dentists giving oral screening.

The campaign highlighted a need for the public to self examine, looking out for ulcers that do not heal within three weeks, red and white patches in the mouth, and lumps, swelling or unusual changes in the mouth and neck.

Find more information at www.mouthcancer.org

Facts and Figures

In the UK over 4,750 are diagnosed each year.

Around 1,700 people die of mouth cancer every year.

Mouth cancer is more common in men than women, but the gap is closing

Mouth cancer is more likely to affect people over 40 years of age, though an
increasing number of young people are developing the condition.

Tobacco and alcohol are thought to contribute to 80 per cent of mouth cancer cases.

Smoking is the number one cause for mouth cancer. Cigarette smoke converts saliva into a deadly cell-damaging cocktail.

Switching to low-tar cigarettes will not help, as smokers of ‘lights’ tend to inhale more smoke than smokers of ‘regular’ cigarettes.

Although some people believe that chewing tobacco is safer than smoking, the reality is that it is even more dangerous. Chewing tobacco, paan, areca nut and gutkha are habits favoured by some ethnic groups.

Alcohol aids absorption of smoke into the mouth – people who smoke and drink alcohol to excess are 30 times more likely to develop mouth cancer.

Poor diet is linked to a third of all cancer cases. Evidence shows an increase in fruit and vegetables lowers the risk, as can fish and eggs.It is recommended that people enjoy a healthy, balanced diet, including food from each of the major food groups and including fruit and vegetables of all different colours as each colour contains different vitamins

Research now suggests the human papilloma virus (HPV) – transmitted by oral sex – could soon rival smoking and drinking as a main cause of mouth cancer.

Early detection and treatment considerably increases survival chances, allows for simpler treatment and results in a better quality of life for sufferers

The Charity

The British Dental Health Foundation is the UK’s leading oral health charity, with a 30-year track record of providing public information and influencing government policy. It maintains a free consumer advice service, an impartial and objective product accreditation scheme, publishes and distributes a wide range of literature for the profession and consumers.

National Smile Month runs each May, to promote greater awareness of the benefits of better oral health, with Mouth Cancer Action Week each November.

The Dental Helpline, which offers free impartial dental advice to consumers, can be contacted on 0845 063 1188 between 9am and 5pm, Monday to Friday or by e- mailing helpline@dentalhealth.org.uk

Arm & Hammer tooth whitener giveaway

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For brilliantly white teeth why not try NEW Advanced Whitening from the leading toothpaste innovator, Arm & Hammer® (rrp £2.49, 75ml). Clinically proven to whiten your teeth by an amazing 3 shades, it is a highly effective daily whitening toothpaste.

Advanced Whitening contains Baking Soda particles that dissolve to gently clean away both surface and deep stains. This advanced toothpaste also has the added benefit of micropolishers that safely polish your teeth leaving your smile dramatically improved. With long-lasting fresh breath protection Advanced Whitening also neutralises odour and gives you the dentist feeling of clean.

We have ten samples of this product to give away. If you would like to receive a sample, please email us at readeroffer@elixirnews.com with your name and address, stating Toothpaste, in the email header. Note this offer closes 31 May, the Editor’s decision is final and no cash equivalent is being offered.

Advanced Whitening is the latest addition to the groundbreaking Arm & Hammer Super Toothpaste Family. Like Advanced Whitening, each other product in the range contains super ingredients that do a particular job. The range also includes:
Enamel Care Whitening (rrp £3.49, 75 ml); with the patented ingredient Liquid Calcium® this is the ideal toothpaste for those who want to strengthen the surface enamel on their teeth. In only three months your teeth will be stronger, healthier and whiter.

Enamel Care Sensitive (rrp £3.49, 75ml); great for those with sensitive teeth, this is the only toothpaste that will actually fix the cause of sensitivity using patented Liquid Calcium®.

Recommended by dentists, Advanced Whitening is simply great value toothpaste for those that want visible results:
“Advanced Whitening is great for deep stain removal, leaving you with cleaner and healthier teeth. I recommend it to patients who want gentle and effective whitening from their every day toothpaste, for a great price.” – Dr Graham Barnby, Professional Dentist

All Arm & Hammer toothpastes also contain fluoride to strengthen your teeth.
They are avaible in the UK from Tesco, SainsburyÂ’s, ASDA, MorrisonÂ’s, Boots and Superdrug.

Oral hygiene goes organic, according to OralClens

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Last year alone saw nearly over a third of consumers buying naturally based cosmetic and toiletry products on a regular basis. With this in mind, Oraldent, the oral care specialists, have teamed up natural health expert, Sarah Wilson and has today revealed the nationÂ’s favourite natural ingredients.

Sales of natural cosmetic ranges and other similar products have helped the organics personal care market grow, and it is expected to reach £12 million by 2011. A Datamonitor analyst says “organics lie at the intersection of the health and ethical trends and have therefore benefited hugely from changes in consumer lifestyles in both of these areas.”

With the increase in information available to the public about chemicals and the benefits of all natural products, it is unsurprising that people are looking for healthy alternatives that will be kinder to their bodies.

Some of the leading top ten natural ingredients, noted through repeated use and occurrence in the media were revealed as:

– Coco beans for protecting, moisturising and rejuvenating

– Sesame oil for protection from bright sunlight

– Virgin olive oil for anti-ageing

– Lavender for anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory purposes

One leading ingredient found within the top ten, was oranges. Citroxx, is an anti-microbial agent extracted from the pith of oranges and has been proven to be 99.998% effective in eradicating the micro-organisms that cause plaque, known to be associated with gum disease and bad breath.

OralClens Natural, the first ever range of mouthwash and toothpaste completely free from harsh, unnecessary chemicals, is based on Citroxx and does not contain sodium lauryl sulphate or sodium benzoate, which makes it attractive to consumers who wish to purchase natural products. It is widely accepted that inadequate oral hygiene leads to the build up of plaque, which unless removed, can destroy gum tissue and eventually lead to tooth loss.

Richard Thomas, Managing Director of Oraldent, says, “As seen by consumers’ recent spending patterns, there is a very real demand for ethically conscious products. Choosing products which omit harmful chemicals such as sodium benzoate and sodium lauryl sulphate and are linked with natural ingredients with proven efficacy, allows the consumer to purchase natural healthy products. Citroxx, the unique ingredient in our range has also been found in several studies to be effective for tackling well known hospital superbugs MRSA and C-difficile. OralClens Natural provides the consumer with a healthy, natural alternative”.

Says Sarah Wilson, Natural Health Expert, “With the booming interest in natural products, it’s no surprise that consumers are also starting to question what goes into their toothpaste. The supermarket shelves are lined with brands containing abrasives, sweeteners, dyes, preservatives and the foaming agent sodium lauryl sulphate, which has recently been linked with health scares. Whitening toothpastes contain peroxide, which can increase tooth sensitivity and irritate gums, and mouthwashes have harsh chemicals that can throw out the balance of the soft tissue in the mouth. So it makes sense to swap to a ‘green’ product when it comes to dental hygiene. OralClens Natural is a pleasant tasting, safe chemical-free alternative. It has been clinically proven to help maintain healthy teeth and gums, and contains plaque-zapping citroxx, one of nature’s wonder ingredients.”

For more information please call 01480 862080 or visit www.oraldent.co.uk

The OralClens Natural range is now available nationwide

o OralClens Natural Mouthwash, Mint – Size: 500ml; RSP: £3.99

o OralClens Natural Mouthwash, Citrus – Size: 500ml; RSP: £3.99

o OralClens Natural Toothpaste – Size: 100ml; RSP: £2.49

· Oralclens is available from Waitrose and Tesco

· Oralclens Natural Mouthwash comes in two flavours, Citrus and Mint.

· Sarah Wilson – Former Editor of HereÂ’s Health Magazine and The Author of “Natural Health for Children”.

Lumineers – the new way to transform your smile

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LUMINEERS® by Cerinate® porcelain veneers is the pain free, non-invasive cosmetic dental treatment which will transform any smile into a whiter, brighter, full-on beam and enhance your appearance.

LUMINEERS was developed by the California-based corporation Den-Mat and is now available for the first time in the UK. LUMINEERS are as thin as a contact lens and are bonded to the front of the teeth – so a stunning new look can be created – with only two visits to the dentist. This treatment is ideal for misaligned, misshapen, stained, discoloured or widely spaced teeth without the need to grind down healthy tooth structure. It can even cover existing crowns or bridgework.

A patient pictured before is shown on the right and after treatment below.

Lumineers are available from approved cosmetic dentists who assess your suitability. LUMINEERS do not require the removal of sensitive tooth structure and no temporaries are needed. A unique set of LUMINEERS are then created and fitted to the front of the teeth without the need for injections. Once they approve their look and feel.

LUMINEERS are permanently bonded, and will look natural and feel comfortable right from the start.

LUMINEERS are made from Cerinate porcelain and will be made to match existing teeth. They can be cared for and treated as normal using a regular brush and non-abrasive toothpaste.

These permanent porcelain veneers are clinically proven to last up to 20 years with no need for drilling; LUMINEERS can disguise and strengthen unattractive teeth. A LUMINEERS smile also offers instant teeth straightening and looks completely genuine.

Appearances are always improved with an enhanced smile and having a bright and confident beam is the key to feeling and looking great. With LUMINEERS anyone can be confident that their smile is one to be proud of – change smiles and see how it can change lives!

For more information, please visit: www.lumineers.com or contact DKAP International on 0800 028 0155.

Londoners spend most on cosmetic dentistry

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Londoners spend more on cosmetic dentistry than those living in other parts of the UK, according to a survey of 2000 people by Mintel for the British Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry.

The country was split into five regions- Scotland, Midland and Wales, North, South and London- and the survey examines the difference between each regionÂ’s attitude towards smiles and oral health.

Regional Highlights:

Scots Show Off Their Smile, Shun Cosmetic Treatment

Only 14% of Scottish respondents conceal their smile in photographs, compared to the national average of18% of people hiding their teeth in photos.
Two-fifths (40%) of the Scottish population claim to always smile in photographs, compared to only one-third (32%) of the nation doing so.
Only a quarter (27%) of Scottish people are concerned with the look of their teeth, lower than the national average and the lowest among all regions
Only 29% of Scots feel people are ‘judged by their smile’, compared to 44% of Londoners
With Scots being the most likely to show off their smile, itÂ’s not surprising they are the least likely to invest in aesthetic dental treatments: only 1/3 (35%), the lowest among all regions, believe cosmetic dentistry can improve their smiles.

The North Follows London Trends

Over a quarter (26%) of those in the North have had cosmetic dentistry, not far behind the 28% of Londoners who splurged on cosmetic dentistry procedures.
Almost half (47%) of Northerners feel that cosmetic dentistry can improve their smile, compared to only 35% of Scots (how does it compare with the national average?).

Midlands and Wales Want Better Smiles

Those from Midlands and Wales are most likely to conceal their teeth in photographs, with 20% of the population hiding their gnashers from the camera – compared to Scotland where only 14% conceal their teeth in photos and the rest of the country, which averages around 18%.
Therefore, itÂ’s not surprising that only 27% of people living in Midlands and Wales will always smile in photographs, compare to the considerably higher national average of32%. Also the lowest percentage of people among all regions.
Those living in Midlands and Wales were the region most likely to believe a better smile begets more success in their life and career, with 28% claiming so.
Perhaps because of these concerns, people from the Midlands and the Welsh are most likely to visit the dentist regularly, with 55% of them doing so.

Londoners Love Cosmetic Dentistry

Londoners were the most likely to have cosmetic dentistry done, with a higher than average (28% vs. the average around the country, 24%) of them claiming to have done so.

Londoners were also more likely than average to request white fillings:17% of people in the area have chosen this form of treatment, which is much higher than the national average of12%. Veneers was the second most popular treatment among Londoners with 11% having the treatment done, also much more than the national average of only 8% of people having the treatment.
Coincidentally, Londoners were the most likely to believe that ‘people are judged by their smile’, with over two-fifths (44%) of London believing so.

The South Stick To The Natural Smile

Only one-fifth (20%) of southerners believe that people with an ‘attractive’ smile are more confident, which is much less than Londoners (27%) and lowest among the entire country.
This can explain why less than one-fifth (18%) of those in the South have had cosmetic dentistry, much less than the national average (24%) and the least among all other regions

Dr David Bloom, Dentist and President of the BACD says:

“The public’s attitude towards smiles and oral health differs tremendously depending on the region. Those in London and the North are more open to the possibilities of cosmetic dentistry, while those in the South are happy with their natural smile. The most positive fact is that every region has at least 50% of people visiting the dentist regularly, which proves that the nation as a whole is aware of the benefits of improved oral health.”

National highlights:

A third of the population (32%) say they are ‘concerned by the look of their teeth’
Approximately one fifth of people (18%) ‘usually conceal their teeth in photos’, including 19% of men and nearly a quarter of both 18-24 and 25-34 year-olds
Only one in four people agree with the statement ‘I like my smile and would not change it’, and in fact, less claim to ‘always smile in photos’ than last year – down to 20% from 27%

Over half of the representative sample now claims to visit their dentist regularly, a rise of 5% on last year(53% up from 48%)

Nearly 60% of women visit the dentist regularly, above average and significantly more than men do – only 46% of males visit the dentist regularly
Women are more inclined to believe a nice smile indicates a warm personality, whilst men consider it begets more success in life
Over a quarter (27%) continues to believes that cosmetic dentistry can improve quality of life

About the BACD
The British Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry is a not-for-profit, inclusive organisation for the advancement and ethical delivery of cosmetic dentistry, open to all dental professionals including dental technicians and hygienists. Their aim is to create a dynamic, active group of members from all areas of the dental team. The BACD, which has over 800 members, is affiliated with the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry, the world’s largest organisation for cosmetic dental professionals. For more information please visit www.bacd.com

Jennifer McGarrigle

Account Executive

The Harley Implant Dental Centre, Harley Street, London

10% discount on all treatments
The Harley Dental Implant Centre
111 Harley Street
London W1G 6AW
T: + 44(0)7935 2573
Email: info@implants-dental.com
Website: www.implants-dental.com

Drs Raj Parkash and Nigel Agger are two of the best dentists and cosmetic dentists in the business today. They work with a passion to deliver the best outcome for their patients.

What they say: “The Harley Dental Implant & Cosmetic Centre is a clinic dedicated to providing the best in dental implantology and cosmetic dentistry. We are internationally renowned for our exceptionally high standard of implant and general dentistry.

We are committed to providing the ultimate standard of quality service in restoring and maintaining your dental health in an atmosphere of professionalism and clinical confidence.

Our aim is to create results for our patients, which enhance the quality of their lives through our dedication to understanding their fundamental needs by means of precise and clear communication.

We treat the person, not just their teeth.”

Top dentists warn over teeth whitening amateurs

London: Britain’s leading dental organisation, the British Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (BACD) today warned about the dangers of going to beauty salons and spas for teeth whitening treatments.

The organisation says it is seeing an increasing number of patients who have had unsuitable treatments. One patient recently seen by a BACD dentist suffered damage to the surface of her teeth, after having a whitening treatment done at a City salon. The substance used on 23-year-old Stephanie is not regularly used for whitening, and according to the BACD, the chemicals can actually dissolve the enamel instead.

Dr. Christopher Orr, dentist and President of the BACD said: “We are seeing many cases of people who, driven by either convenience or cheap pricing, choose to have their teeth whitened at local beauty salons or ‘spas’. Not only are the treatments performed by non-dentists, but some of these chemicals aren’t accepted material for this cosmetic use and could cause considerable damage.”

On the first week of January, Stephanie Ramezan, a City-based 23-year-old who works in financial markets, decided to have her teeth whitened at a local spa. She was surprised to find there were no dentists performing the treatment, only beauty therapists, and that the procedure was so cheap. She explains;

“I had been led to believe that teeth whitening can be expensive, over £300, but this was less than £200 – I asked the therapist and she said it was a special ‘New Year’ offer. I had checked out their website beforehand and it all seemed reputable, so I went ahead and booked the session.”

However, as soon as two days after undergoing treatment, Stephanie noticed her teeth seemed darker, rather than lighter. She went back to the salon to enquire why this would be, but the beauticians there were unable to help. They informed her that the doctor, who runs the spa, was away. Stephanie went back again, twice, on different dates but the doctor was never available. She then tried calling her directly several times, but was rebuffed.

Stephanie says:“I was shocked at how unprofessional they were. Even the beauticians recognised that my teeth looked darker but no one seemed to know what to do about it.”

Oliver Harman, a BACD dentist who later saw Stephanie, noticed the surface of her teeth seemed damaged. Justifiably incensed, she shared with him all the details of what had happened. Oliver, who is based at City Dentics, then looked into the websites of the salon and the whitening franchise they are part of, which has outlets around the UK. He was puzzled about their use of a substance called chlorine dioxide, which although an oxidising agent is not generally used for whitening (the acid involved, in fact, is usually recommended only for industrial cleaning or water purification).

He says: “What immediately worried me is that they seem to be using strong chemicals which include orthophosphoric acid, which is what dentists use to dissolve enamel when bonding fillings. In addition, they hadn’t even bothered to scrape the plaque off Stephanie’s teeth before bleaching, which is common practice so there can be an even finish.”

Oliver says:

“These cases, which are becoming more common, illustrate perfectly why dental treatments should be performed by appropriately qualified practitioners – and that means dentists, not beauty therapists.”

A third of Britons have had some form of cosmetic dentistry, and whitening is the most popular treatment. This year, the BACD launched the ‘Smiling for the World’ project, which involves the fee for any whitening treatments being donated in their entirety to ‘Facing the World’ www.facingtheworld.net, a charity that benefits children with facial deformities. To find a reputable dentist, the public can access contact details for over 650 members at < ahref="http://www.bacd.com">www.bacd.com

About BACD

The British Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry is a not-for-profit, inclusive organisation for the advancement and ethical delivery of cosmetic dentistry, open to all dental professionals including dental technicians and hygienists. Their aim is to create a dynamic, active group of members from all areas of the dental team. The BACD, which has over 400 members, is affiliated with the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry, the world’s largest organisation for cosmetic dental professionals

Stress may lead to mouth cancer

London: More than one in three Brits admit to alleviating stress by drinking and one in five by smoking, but nearly two out of three were unable to identify both of these as leading causes of mouth cancer.

The new research, conducted for Mouth Cancer Awareness Week (12-18 November) by dental payment plan company Denplan found that while most Brits could identify smoking as a cause of mouth cancer, nearly two-thirds could not identify drinking as a leading risk factor of the disease.

Moreover, respondents in the most at-risk age group for contracting the disease (those aged 45 and older) were the least able to identify smoking and drinking as a major cause of mouth cancer.

Almost half of those questioned admitted to feeling stressed at least oncea day and, given the high percentage of those who turn to cigarettes and alcohol to cope, this indicates that the prevalence of mouth cancer in the UK may be linked to the way we relieve the pressures of modern life. 4,400 new cases of mouth cancer are diagnosed each year in the UK, and the disease kills more than 1,700 annually.

Although Brits regularly drink and smoke as an escape from the stresses of jobs, family life and other commitments, more than 20 per cent did not recognise one of the early warning signs of the disease, an ulcer that does not heal, and a quarter of people would not go to the dentist if they had a mouth ulcer that persisted for weeks.

The results suggest a worrying lack of awareness, and a danger that todayÂ’s over-stressed population may be in for a big health scare later in life. The chances of surviving mouth cancer can increase from 50 per cent to nearly 90 per cent if they are detected and treated early.

Dr. Henry Clover, Dental Advisor for dental payment plan company Denplan, said: “While alcohol and cigarettes may help alleviate feelings of stress in the short-term, over time this lifestyle can pose a serious health risk and significantly increase the likelihood of developing mouth cancer.

“As people are increasingly resorting to these methods of relieving stress, it is becoming more and more important that they are able to identify early symptoms of the disease. The most common of these are long lasting sores or ulcers, white or red patches on the gums, tongue or the lining of the mouth
and difficulty swallowing.”

The research also found that: * 44% of 25 – 34 year olds regularly have a drink if they have had a stressful day compared to the 35% who relieve stress through exercise * Seven out of ten respondents over 55 could not name drinking as a majorcause of mouth cancer * When asked to identify common symptoms of the disease, 21% of respondents could not identify an ulcer lasting longer than 2 weeks; and 44% were not able to identify the appearance of white or red patches on the inside of the mouth * Nearly half of us admit to feeling stressed once a day

About the research:- The research was carried out for Denplan by Tickbox.net from the 22nd September to the 5th October 2006 using a survey sample base of 1783.

About AXA AXA is a world leader in financial protection. AXA’s operations are diverse with major operations in Western Europe, North America and the Asia/Pacific area. AXA employs 120,000 staff and tied agents and, as of 31 December 2005, had €1,064 billion in assets under management. AXA reported total IFRS revenues of €72 billion and IFRS underlying earnings of €3,258 million for the full year 2005. Our previous company performance is not a guide to how we may perform in the future.

AXA ordinary shares are listed on the Paris Stock Exchange; AXA American Depositary Shares (ADSs) are listed on the NYSE under the ticker symbol AXA. About Denplan Denplan Ltd., part of the AXA Group, is the UK’s leading dental plan provider with an approximately 80% market share. Denplan has more than 6,000 member dentists nationwide (around a third of General Dental Practitioners) and over 1.6 million registered patients. The company was established in 1986 by two dentists who pioneered the concept of dental payment plans.

Today Denplan provides a range of plans for adults and children, enabling patients to spread the cost of their dental care through a fixed monthly fee. Denplan supports regular attendance and preventive care, reducing the need for clinical intervention and helping patients to maintain healthy teeth and gums for life. Denplan Care: all routine and restorative care + worldwide dental A & E cover Denplan Essentials: routine care only + worldwide dental A & E cover Plans for Children: routine and other agreed care + worldwide dental A & E
cover

Denplan Emergency: worldwide dental A & E cover only Denplan Enhance: interest-free patient loans of £250 – £25,000 for dental treatment Company Dental Plans: company funded, voluntary and flexible benefit
schemes Denplan also provides a range of professional services for its member dentists, including the Denplan Quality Programme, Denplan Excel
accreditation programme and Denplan Training. Patient enquiries telephone: 0800 401 402 Dentist enquiries telephone: 0800 328 3223 www.denplan.co.uk

Get a Hollywood smile in Bulgaria

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Varna, Bulgaria:A radiant smile is hard to resist but the cost of whitening and veneers can be prohibitive. Now a new clinic, the Dentaprime, is offering the latest cosmetic dental treatments at a fraction of the price elsewhere.

The first three seconds decide what effect you have on another person. A naturally radiant smile is almost impossible to resist. On the other hand teeth get discoloured in the course of time, or even turn brown.

Coffee- and tea-drinkers and smokers are particularly affected. But help is at hand from professional tooth-whitening procedures, otherwise known as bleaching. The Dentaprime Dental Clinic at Varna in Bulgaria provides one of the safest and most efficient bleaching methods there is – with the most up-to-date equipment and at reasonable prices.

The idea of whitening teeth is not new. But the ultrasound bleaching system is! Analysis of a long-term study has shown that ultrasound bleaching, using the Dentaprime Clinic (QuickWhite ©) system, is the most efficient and safest professional tooth-whitening procedure to have a long-term effect. There is no change to the structure of the teeth and treatment is extremely gentle. One particular advantage is that the dentist can adjust the colour of fillings and crowns. This means that your smile is completely natural and white.

Worldwide patent
To start with, your teeth and the spaces between them get a completely professional clean. Then the dentist applies the patented QuickWhite© contact gel, depending on the condition of your teeth and the desired result. After this you relax comfortably for about 40 minutes in a specially designed chair, the KaVo Primus, manufactured in Germany. The whitening process uses ultra-sound and provides the best possible result.

DIY tooth whitening systems Adhesive whitening strips from the discount pharmacy or so-called DIY systems, are not an alternative to professional bleaching in a dental clinic. Users frequently report unsatisfactory results, even though they may have followed instructions to the letter, sometimes for weeks on end. ‘Not much white for rather a lot of money’ seems to be the general feeling.

In the Dentaprime Clinic the patented bleaching process costs about sixty per cent less than in the UK. As well as receiving treatment many patients use the opportunity to take a short holiday on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast.

You can obtain more information on the internet at: www.dentaprime.com

About Dentaprime

The Dentaprime Dental Clinic for implantology and cosmetic dentistry on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast is among the most modern in the whole of Europe. It combines highest quality standards with significantly lower treatment costs than in Great Britain. Its seven implantation rooms and five prosthetic rooms are equipped with the most modern medical apparatus, manufactured by world market leaders KaVo. The implant systems come from Switzerland, from well-known manufacturers, Nobel Biocare and Straumann. Patients are cared for and treated by experienced and English-speaking implantologists, dental technicians and medical assistants, who have all been trained to western European standards.

Dental disease revealed to be factor in stroke

Los Angeles: Dental disease is a risk factor in stroke, according to new research from the the University of California Los Angeles.

Researchers have discovered that the disease is more prevelant in people with blockages of the main blood vessels leading to the brain (carotid artery). These blockages, or atheromas, contain calcium and can be detected on dental panoramic radiographs.

The results came from a study to see if dental disease shown on a panoramic radiograph is greater among people with atheromas seen on their dental radiograph than among people without atheromas but matched for stroke risk factors (body mass, smoking history, need for medications to control hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes).

The group with carotid atheromas seen on dental panoramic radiographs was found to have more dental disease, as determined by the number of teeth with decay, missing teeth, and the amount of bone loss around teeth, than the group without any radiographically detectable atheromas.

The results of this study, Does Dental Disease Influence Prevalence of Panographically Imaged Carotid Atheromas?, indicate that dental disease may play a role in the formation of carotid atheromas in patients already at risk for stroke. It was conducted by E. Chung, A.F. Friedlander, E.C. Sung, and N.R. Garrett, of the University of California-Los Angeles, USA, presented on July 1, 2006, at the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre, during the 84th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research.