- Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
- Malic enzyme
- Fatty acyl CoA oxidase
th a “close inverse correlation” between insulin and DHEA. This raises the question as to whether DHEA is the “missing link” in hyperinsulinemia and atherosclerosis.
hippocampal region, the authors suggest that it is possible that this pathological imbalance between stress hormones and DHEA accounts for much of the damage.
A steriod is a hormone, such as cortisone used to reduce inflammation and swelling.
London: A new generation of hormone diet drugs which could be as effective as weight-loss surgery could soon be on the market after the announcement that it was ready for human trials.
Scientists believe the drug, which creates a false feeling that a person is full, could offer a breakthrough in the treatment of obesity, which is predicted to reach epidemic levels in the coming decades.
One in four Britons is now classed as obese, one in three 10-year-olds is either overweight or obese and more than one million obesity drugs are prescribed every year.Experts estimate that by 2050 half of all adults will be classed as clinically obese.
The drug, which has been developed by Imperial College London, offers an alternative to gastroplasty, or stomach stapling, which uses surgery to reduce the size of the stomach.
It has been developed by Steve Bloom, a medical professor at the university, who has produced a synthetic version of a hormone called oxyntomodulin, which is known to help obese patients reduce their food intake.
London: Pinolenic Acid, a natural plant extract, from the Korean pine nut (Pinus Koraiensis), has been shown to suppress appetite dramatically without causing harmful stimulatory side effects.
A form of polyunsaturated fatty acid it attacks the underlying mechanisms involved in hunger so effectively that the 18 participants in a recent study reduced their food intake by 36% and experienced a reduction in the desire to eat of 29%. The experiment also produced a significant increase in two hormonal appetite suppressors that send signals of satiety or fullness to the brain – cholecystokinin (CCK) which increased by 60% and glucagons-like peptide 1 (GLP1) of 25% that remained for up to four hoursafter eating.
[The experiment which was presented in a paper, Korean pine nut fattyacids affect appetite sensations, plasma CCK and GLPI in overweight subjects to the American Physiological Society in April 2006, by Alexandra Einerhand, director, nutrition and toxicology-Europe at Lipid Nutrition, a division of Loders Croklaan, Wormerveer, the Netherlands.] In another recent study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (5 April 2006), the effects of calorie restriction on health biomarkers were measured in a group of overweight adults over a six month period.
In response to reduced food intake, fasting insulin levels plummeted
excess insulin acts as a death hormone that devastates virtually every cell and organ system in the body. Insulin overload increases the risk of heart disease, cancer, blindness, stroke, Alzheimers, and other age-related diseases. The amount of weight lost in the groups that restricted their calorie intake the moderate calorie restriction experienced a 24% reduction in body fat mass, while the very low-calorie group achieved a 32% reduction in fat mass.
This process of calorie restriction, at the same time as maintaining optimal nutrition, has been shown to radically extend life span in lower animals and primates. It is thought that this may also apply to humans. Unfortunately, the greatest obstacle faced by anyone undertaking calorie restriction and trying to achieve sustained weight reduction in the nagging sensation of feeling hungry. Most people give into this craving and thus forgo the opportunity to reduce their risks for life-threatening diseases.
In the UK one in four adults is obese and the treatment of obesity-related illnesses, including type 2 diabetes, knee and hip operations cost the HNS £1bn last year. Satiety is the sense of food satisfaction and fullness experienced after eating. Hunger and satiety both depend on a complex feed back loop involving many hormones and other substances secreted by the gut that interact with control centres in the brain.
The gut participates in the hunger satiety circuit by secreting two important hormones, cholescystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), among others. Cholecystokinin is recognised to suppress appetite in humans. When a partially digested meal rich in fats or proteins leaves the stomach to enter the duodenum (the first portion of the small intestine), the duodenal mucosa cells secrete CCK. In turn CCK stimulates the pancreas to secrete numerous enzymes to help digest food. CCK also acts on the gallbladder to stimulate the release of bile into the small intestine, which helps emulsify and break down fats.
Most important to appetite control, CCK acts to slow gastric emptying and to promote a feeling of fullness, thus suppressing further food intake. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is another hormone that is intimately connected with fullness and satiety. Produced in the small intestine in response to fat and carbohydrates, GLP-1 works in part by activating what is known as the ileal break mechanism.
This slows down the absorption of food in the gut, promoting feelings of fullness and satiety, and therefore limits the further desire for food intake. GLP-1 also helps to control the health of pancreatic beta cells, which serve the crucial function of manufacturing insulin in the body. Abnormal beta cell function plays a key role in insulin resistance and scientists believe that therapies that boost GLP-1 levels could help alter the course of diabetes.
Pinolenic acid has been developed into a new supplement, Natural Appetite Control, available for the first time in the UK for adults seeking to lower their calorie intake and maintain a successful long-term weight management programme. Each softgel of new Natural Appetite Control provides 1000mg of a standardised extract of Korean pine nuts containing the highest concentration of pinolenic acid found in any pine nut species.
Pine nuts are used extensively in Mediterranean cookery, such as in Italian pesto, but the nuts of the Korean pine have a far greater concentration of pinolenic acid than those of European pine nuts. The recommended daily dose of this all-natural vegetable-based (suitablefor vegetarians) formula is three softgels taken 30-60 minutes before a meal with the highest calorie content.
To reduce snacking, three softgels may be taken between meals. The best time to take this supplement may be in the evening, to reduce food intake before bedtime. Natural Appetite Control should be used in conjunction with a healthy diet and exercise programme. Results may vary. Natural Appetite Control costs £15.30 for 90 softgels and is available from www.thevitalityshopuk.com Telephone enquiries: 0800 011 2496
Boston: A company that distributed human growth hormone to “well known athletes and entertainers” has agreed to pay a $10.5 million penalty and cooperate with ongoing law enforcement investigations, federal prosecutors said on Tuesday.
Under the terms of the agreement, Specialty Distribution Services Inc., a subsidiary of Express Scripts Inc., will not face prosecution for three years if it fully complies with terms of the agreement.
Steve Littlejohn, a spokesman for St. Louis-based Express Scripts, said the company fully cooperated in the federal investigation and has already implemented procedures to prevent the illegal distribution of human growth hormone.
“Express Scripts does not condone the use of human growth hormone for anti-aging, cosmetic or performance enhancement purposes,” the company said in a news release.
Specialty Distribution Services “knowingly distributed human growth hormone to certain well known athletes and entertainers, including a well known athlete in Massachusetts, knowing that their intended use was athletic performance enhancement, cosmetic or anti-aging,” in violation of federal law, the U.S. attorney’s office said in a news release.
Prosecutors did not mention any names of those believed to have bought HGH from the firm.
The drug in question was approved by the Food and Drug Administration only for specific purposes, including treatment of children with growth failure due to inadequate growth hormones, prosecutors said.
“The public should also realize that human growth hormone has not been shown to be safe and effective for athletic, cosmetic or anti-aging uses, and it must not be promoted or distributed for such uses,” U.S. Attorney Michael Sullivan said in a statement.
The company illegally shipped the drugs five times between October 2000 and December 2005, according to court documents prosecutors filed with the agreement.
Human growth hormone was sent to a “well known professional athlete in Massachusetts” in January 2002 and again in October 2003 following a doctor’s request, the documents said.
Drugs were sent to an entertainer in March 2002 at the request of a doctor who said he was filling the prescription at the patient’s request and that the drugs were “not medically necessary,” according to the documents. The doctor identified his practice as an “anti-aging clinic.”
The company shipped the drugs to a 6-foot-5, 276-pound “entertainer/athlete” in January 2003 after a doctor said it was “medically necessary,” even though the dosage was typically used for performance enhancement, the documents said.
Specialty Distribution Services had pharmacists and other employees who should have recognized the prescriptions as illegitimate, prosecutors said. Under the agreement, it will better train employees to recognize fake prescriptions.
Human growth hormone is produced naturally by the body throughout life, but can cause complications when taken in excessive amounts, said Dr. Linn Goldberg, professor of medicine at Oregon Health and Science University in Portland.
“When you are a fully grown adult who takes HGH in excess, it thickens your bones and skin, puts you at risk for diabetes and other conditions, and causes fluid retention, joint pain and nerve damage,” he said.
Goldberg said he is not surprised that entertainers and athletes are using it, because it can cost $100 per day. Prosecutors said HGH treatment can cost up to $20,000 per year.
“Athletes are looking for the fountain of youth, and the fountain of youth is not to be found in a bottle,” he said.
London: A natural food supplement called Asphalia, composed of completely plant-derived materials which are grown and produced in South Wales and are naturally rich in melatonin, has been proven to aid the bodys ability to achieve REM sleep faster than any other sleeping tablets and with no adverse side effects.
It is a well known that melatonin plays an important role in the regulation of the circadian rhythms of the body. It has also been proven to be a powerful, potent and natural antioxidant five times as powerful as Vitamin C and twice as strong as Vitamin E, as well as helping to strengthen the immune system and providing cardiovascular protection. Melatonin however, is best known for its role in jet lag and in maintaining healthy sleep.
Available over the counter in the US, synthetic melatonin has become one of the most popular remedies for insomnia and jet lag. However, in the UK, synthetic melatonin supplements were banned several years ago, as they were classed as a hormone and are now only available on prescription.
In a published study reporting that some plants were rich in natural melatonin, the gramineous plant Festuca arundinacea, a meadow grass with unique properties, was shown to contain far more melatonin than any of the other 24 plants that were tested. (Hattori, Migitaka et al., 1995)
An independent Welsh laboratory, Coghill Research Laboratories, established in the early 1980s, has been growing this plant for several years and has now developed Asphalia as a food supplement based on its leaves. This natural plant-derived melatonin is proving more effective than its synthetic equivalent.
Asphalia contains melatonin in physiological doses (in the sub-microgram range), which have been shown to remain efficacious for longer than the pharmacological doses (in the milligram range). The latter usually applies to melatonin supplements made from synthetic chemicals.
Besides helping to regulate sleep, Asphalia also promotes wellbeing in people suffering from exposure to electromagnetic pollution, since it contains such a strong anti-oxidant. Anti-oxidants provide protection against extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (“EMFs) found near power lines, domestic wiring and electric appliances and also against higher frequency radiations from radar, radio waves, cell phones and masts. A new DoH-funded committee (SAGE) has recently advised of the publics need to mitigate exposure to EMFs.
It is also especially beneficial for people over 40, as melatonin declines with age from the age of 70, the body only makes 10% of the normal adult concentration, a principal cause of the ageing process.
Approved by the MHRA as an over-the-counter food supplement, Asphalias Greensward anti-oxidant formula is made purely from Festuca arundinacea .
Asphalia products are now available from independent health food stores across the UK, by mail order and online at www.asphalia.co.uk T. + 44 (0)1495 752122. Costs £11.75 for 30 capsules (one months supply) plus £2.50 p&p within the UK.
If you type the term “human growth hormone” into the search engine Google you will find more than 5 million entries including paid adverts from web sites around the world touting it as a miracle cure for all the ills of ageing.
This hormone is credited as an elixir of youth with the ability to turn fat into muscle, rejuvenate sagging skin, restoring libido and reversing memory loss.
The majority of these sites are promising eternal youth by selling bottles of water containing vitamins and amino acids and many are labelled homeopathic Hgh. But the truth is the real stuff is made synthetically by just a few pharmaceutical companies and the only way to take it is by injection and it is available only on prescription.
The use of Hgh as a rejuvenation treatment is the subject of much controversy amongst the medical profession since its only manufactured for the treatment of growth deficiencies in children and severe adult deficiency not for ageing. There have been no long-term studies of it as a rejuvenation treatment and the possible side effects which might include carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetes, bone loss and even cancer.
But this hasnt stopped its popularity as a rejuvenation treatment in the expensive clinics of Beverly Hills and New York and London. Doctors prescribe the treatment which costs about $40,000 (£20,000, 30,000) each year to their rich and celebrity clients in the form of a convenient injector pen.
According to the US magazine, the National Enquirer, devotees of Hgh, include Hollywood celebrities such as Nick Nolte, Pam Anderson, Janet Jackson, Madonna, Demi Moore, Brad Pitt, Marla Maples, Britney Spears and Jennifer Aniston.
The popularity of hgH followed an experiment in the US in 1990 in which a group of 12 men aged over 60 years saw dramatic changes in their bodies as signs of ageing melted away. In the Rudman Study, named after Dr Daniel Rudman, fat turned to lean muscle, bone density increased, skin became thicker and the men looked generally dramatically younger. Their sex drive also increased. They were monitored for adverse effects but there were none.
Produced by the pituitary gland, Hgh is responsible for growth in childhood and helps the metabolism of carbohydrate and fat. It peaks in adolescence but by the time a person hits 60 years the bodys production will have fallen by 50% or more. It is produced naturally at night and also stimulated by exercise.
In medical rejuvenation programmes the doctor will usually prescribe it alongside other anti-ageing hormones to restore levels to that of a younger person. These hormones include melatonin, testosterone, oestrogen and the so-called performancing enhancing steroid used by athletes, DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone).
The Belgian endocrinologist Dr Thierry Hertoghe who promotes the benefits of Hgh at anti-ageing conferences and takes it himself says that without the hormone’s benefit, “we would all be tiny little dwarfs that are shy, anti-social, weak and tired,”
Hertoghe who is the author of “The Hormone Solution Stay younger longer with natural hormone and nutrition therapies” believes that current hormone replacement therapy which consists of replacing only one or two hormones is outmoded and that the bodys 100 hormones must function in complex harmony.
Problems occur as we age because hormones inevitably diminish, disrupting the balance, which may trigger weight gain, fatigue, wrinkles, and hair loss. Fortunately, a regimen of natural hormones can protect us, according to Hertoghe, and his book offers anecdotal evidence of dramatic transformations. Although he includes self-scoring checklists so you can determine your own hormone profile, he wisely urges you to implement your own “hormone solution” by working closely with your doctor. .
“In less than six months, a woman of 60 can have legs of a 35- to 40-year-old,” he says.
Hertoghe has treated hundreds of elderly patients whom he has given human growth hormone injections. By restoring Hgh levels typical of a twenty-or thirty-year-old, Hertoghe claims to have thickened their thinning hair, erased their deep wrinkles, lifted their sagging eyelids, smoothed their puffy eyes, toned their sagging muscles, and tightened the loose skin on their cheeks and under their chins. “It’s like magic,” he says.
In the UK the debate was reignited recently when one doctor admitted that he and his wife had both rejuvenated themselves with Hgh, But in Londons Harley Street you will find very few doctors who will admit to prescribing this drug even though they are allowed to go what is called off-label if they feel it is justified in the interests of a patient.
One doctor who has used the treatment on herself is Dr Cecilia Tregear. She says that when she reached the age of 50, she was overweight with a BMI (Body Mass Index) of 29 to 30 and looked older than her years and tired. So she embarked on multiple hormone replacement therapy after testing her own blood for deficiencies.
After two years of treatment she says she was transformed by her treatment which included a course of bio-identical hormones.
‘My BMI was down to 23 and I was full of energy,’ she says. ‘The wrinkles had vanished from my skin. My brain worked much better and there was no sign of osteoporosis, says Dr Tregear
But the Hgh debate rumbles on. A review of 31 studies involving 200 patients, led by researchers at Stanford University in the US, recently concluded that the benefits of human growth hormone therapy are insignificant compared to the increased risk of many conditions including joint swelling and pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetes and prediabetes.
They found that the only benefit associated with its use is slightly increased lean body mass. The therapy increased 2 kilograms of muscle mass and reduced 2kg of fat in the study subjects.
But says Dr Ronald Klatz, president of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine (A4M) said Thousand sof published studies on hundreds of thousands of patients have demonstrated the clear benefits of adult growth hormone replacement therapy, when utilized under proper clinical guidelines and at proper physiological dosages.
“To deny the benefit of HGH and other essential hormonal regulators of metabolism in deficient patients based on age may be considered a heinous act of malpractice which will prove to be erroneous and shortsighted in the years to come.
ELIXIRs own fitness expert, Jon Trevor, say: Most people would be better off exercising more often and taking vitamin supplements. Injecting with Hgh is not only expensive but there appears to be no credible results to back it up. In the same way that the supplement creatine was all the range for body builders, the introduction of yet another stimulant should be treated with caution.
Hollywood for the here and now is so image driven that I feel that the long term health effects are cast aside, no doubt the doctors that are prescribing Hgh have their clients sign some form of a disclaimer and so the era of the quick fix is upon us. But this may not turn out to be a quick fix years down the line.
London: Women taking hormone replacement therapy are 20% more likely to suffer from ovarian cancer, claims a new report. More more than 1,000 women died in the last 15 years after contracting ovarian cancer following hormone replacement therapy it says.
The study published in the latest issue of The Lancet medical journal etimates that 70 deaths a yar are connected to taking the therapy which is dogged with controversy and confusion.
US researchers recently produced evidence to suggest that women int heir 50s on HRT are protected from heart attachs and premature death. This contradicted earlier claims that it put women at risk of heart disease.
This latest study, sponsored by Million Women Study, was started in 1996 suggests that more than 1,300 extra cases of ovarian cancer occured between 1991 and 2005. Of these women, 1,000 died of the disease. It reveals a 20 per cent increase in risk of the disease in women who have taken HRT for at least five years, but says it does not persist if women give up. The study, largely funded by Cancer Research UK, looked at responses from 948,576 postmenopausal women over seven years. It has previously linked HRT with breast cancer.
Overall the statistics mean that over a five-year period there is likely to be one extra case of ovarian cancer among every 2,500 women receiving hormone replacement therapy. For every 3,300 women on HRT, there is estimated to be one additional death from ovarian cancer.
HRT prescribed by the UK’s National Health Service is artificially made hormone replacement usually made from mare’s urine. It is used to combat symptoms of the menopause, including hot flushes, vaginal dryness and night sweats, with a range of drugs including tablets, implants and patches.
Safety concerns led to drug regulatory authorities in the UK and other countries issuing restrictions, including the advice to use it for the shortest time possible, which have continued to deter women from getting treatment. It has been blamed for both womb and breast cancer.GP data shows the number of British women on HRT halved from two to one million between 2002 and 2005.
Washington: Scientists at the Univesity of Washington are working on an anti-ageing drug using a compound said to stimulate human growth hormone (Hgh) to give people more energy and cut their body fat.
Scientists at the University of Washington said the experimental growth hormone secretagogue forced the body to secrete growth hormone as it did in youth.
Almost 400 men and women aged 65-84 have taken part in a study in which they were given different amounts of the hormone. Their body lean muscle mass and strength were then measured. Lean body mass of about 1.5kg increased and physical function improved over the year.
Head researcher and professor of medicine George Merriam said the hormone was vital in childhood and its production peaked during puberty but declined with age. Hgh is only prescribable for children with a deficiency and adults with an abnormal defiency.
A secretagogue, such as that being reserached by the scientists, stimulates the body
into producing its own Hgh.
New York: Doctors at Columbia University Medical Centre believe they have discovered why some dieters find it difficult to maintain weightloss and pile the pounds back on. A hormone called leptin, which regulates the metabolism may be responsible.
Leptin levels fall when people diet making it increasingly harder to burn off calories, said the findings published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
Dr Michael Rosenbaum, who led the research believes the findings could lead to a new diet drug containing leptin.
He said that leptin helps the body believe it is happy with a lower weight and help dieters keep off the pounds.
The research examined the reactions of 10 healthy men and women. As they lost weight their leptin levels fell. They were given leptin and maintained their weightloss.
In previous studies it has been found that leptin acts as an appetite suppressant. Levels also fall if we do not get enough sleep making us want to eat more.